Course Description and Learning Outcomes
This is a mandatory course taught in the first year, first semester of the Master in Computer Science (all streams/majors) at the University of Antwerp.
The UA course description can be found here.
The course is taught in English.
This course will introduce you to the different kinds of complexity we have to deal with when designing
large softwareintensive systems. This complexity will be tackled using different modelling formalisms, each appropriate
for specific problems/aspects: various UML diagrams, Causal Block Diagrams (aka Synchronous Data Flow),
Petri Nets, Statecharts, Event Scheduling/Activity Scanning/Process Interaction DiscreteEvent, DEVS, Forrester System Dynamics.
Control Theory will also be briefly introduced with focus on the development of an optimal (embedded, software) controller.
The goal of the course is to gain understanding of the similarities and differences between different formalisms.
Modelling formalisms vary in the level of detail in which they consider time (e.g., partial order, discretetime, continuoustime),
whether they allow modelling of sequential or concurrent behaviour, whether they are deterministic (mostly suited for system/software synthesis)
or nondeterministic (mostly suited for modelling system environment effects, with subsequent safety analysis), whether they support
a notion of spatial distribution, ...
At the end of the course, you should be able to choose between (and explain why) and use appropriate formalisms for
modelling, analysis, simulation and synthesis of diverse (softwareintensive) applications.
The above forms a starting point for more advanced topics. In particular, the combination of different formalisms and the development
of DomainSpecific Modelling Languages. The latter is one of the topics of the course
Model Driven Engineering.

Assessment Methods and Criteria
The course grades are distributed as follows:
 15% on the theory exam;
 85% on the assignments.
To pass the course, you need to attend/submit and orally defend every part (theory exam and each and every
assignment) of the course.
If not, your grade will be "AFW"  absent.
If you do attend/submit every part, you still need an overall score of 50% to pass the course.
Additionally, if for at least one part (theory exam, or any assignment) your score is strictly below 40%,
your overall grade will be min(7, your_score).
your_score is the score you would get when applying the weights given above.
The (written) theory exam takes place during the exam period (see SisA).
Use of your notes or other materials such as laptops is not allowed (aka "closed book" exam).
Here is a tentative list of Exam Topics/Questions
For the (September) supplemental exam period, partial exemptions for specific parts of the course may
be given. This is discussed individually. You should request exemptions yourself by email to the course lecturer.

Prerequisites
ObjectOriented programming. The course assumes that you master ObjectOriented concepts and are able to understand and produce
ObjectOriented code.
The first couple of assignments make extensive use of the objectoriented programming language Python.
We advise you to prepare for this course by learning the language, if you don't already know it.
A useful tutorial can be found at: http://docs.python.org/tutorial/

Basics of ObjectOriented design (notions of design patterns) and basics of the Unified Modelling Language (UML).
As a refresher, a short introduction will be given on OO Design and UML during one of the first lectures.
The first assignment will test your knowledge on this topic and will demonstrate the relationship between the different
languages in the UML family of languages.

Schedule (will be updated as the term progresses)
You can find the URLs of the online lectures in the course announcements on Blackboard
Week  Date  Type  Room  Subject 
1  Tuesday 22 September 13:45  18:00  Theory  M.G.005 + M.G006 + online 
Course introduction: goals, structure, evaluation, planning, Python!
Causes of complexity, Software Intensive Systems 
   
lecture recordings:
part 1,
part 2,
part 3,
part 4 
2  Monday 28 September 18:00  20:00  Theory  online  UML notations: Use Case / Object / Class / Sequence Diagrams 
   
lecture recordings:
part 1,
part 2 
2  Wednesday 30 September 10:45  12:45  Assignment  online  UML notations: Regular Expressions, Finite State Automata  assignment #1 
   
lecture recordings:
part 1,
part 2 
3  Monday 5 October 18:00  20:00  Theory  online  The structure of modelling languages
Introduction to Causal Block Diagrams 
   
lecture recordings:
part 1,
part 2 
3  Wednesday 7 October 10:45  12:45  Theory  online  Algebraic Causal Block Diagrams (denotational/operational) 
   
lecture recordings:
part 1,
part 2 
4  Monday 12 October 18:00  20:00  Theory  online  Algebraic Causal Block Diagrams (operational) loop detection and solving
DiscreteTime Causal Block Diagrams (denotational/operational) 
   
lecture recordings:
part 1,
part 2 
4  Wednesday 14 October 10:45  12:45  Assignment  online  Alg + DT CBD  assignment #2 
   
assignment presentation 
4   Theory  online  ContinuousTime Causal Block Diagrams 
   
lecture recording 
4  Wednesday 14 October 23:59  Deadline  Blackboard  Assignment 1: Requirements Checking 
5  Monday 19 October 18:00  20:00  Theory  online  ContinuousTime Causal Block Diagrams 
   
lecture recordings:
part 1 (CBD modelling in draw.io/diagrams.net),
part 2,
part 3 
5  Wednesday 21 October 10:45  12:45  Theory  online  CTCBD approximation accuracy
PID controllers 
   
lecture recordings:
part 1,
part 2 
5   Assignment  online  CT CBD; PID controllers  assignment #3 
6  Monday 26 October 18:00  20:00  Theory  online  Finite State Automata; Petri Nets 
   
lecture recordings:
part 1,
part 2 
6  Wednesday 28 October 10:45  12:45  Theory  online  Petri nets 
   
lecture recordings:
part 1,
part 2 
6  Saturday 31 October 23:59  Deadline  Blackboard  Assignment 2: Algebraic and DiscreteTime CBDs 
7  Monday 2 November    All Saints day  no class 
7  Wednesday 4 November 10:45  12:45  Theory  online  Petri nets: analysis, fairness, time, colour 
   
lecture recordings:
part 1,
part 2 
8  Monday 9 November 18:00  20:00  Theory  online  Petri nets: analysis, LTL/CTL 
   
lecture recordings:
part 1,
part 2 
8  Wednesday 11 November    Armistice day  no class 
9  Monday 16 November 18:00  20:00  Theory  online  Higraphs; Statecharts 
   
lecture recordings:
part 1,
part 2 
9  Wednesday 18 November 10:45  12:45  Assignment  online  Petri nets  assignment #4 
   
assignment presentation 
9   Theory  online  Statecharts 
   
lecture recording 
10  Monday 23 November 18:00  20:00  Theory  online  Statecharts 
   
lecture recordings:
part 1,
part 2 
10  Wednesday 25 November 10:4511:45  Theory  online  Statecharts 
   
lecture recording 
10  Wednesday 25 November 11:4512:45  Assignment  online  Statecharts handson  assignment #5 
   
tutorial recording 
10  Sunday 29 November 23:59  Deadline  Blackboard  Assignment 3: ContinuousTime CBDs + PID control 
11  Monday 30 November 18:0020:00  Theory  online  DiscreteEvent World Views: Event Scheduling, Activity Scanning 
   
lecture recordings:
part 1,
part 2 
11  Wednesday 2 December 10:45  12:45  Theory  online  DiscreteEvent World Views: Process Interaction
Gathering statistics 
   
lecture recordings:
part 1,
part 2 
12  Monday 7 December 18:00  20:00  Theory  online  Atomic DEVS 
   
lecture recordings:
part 1,
part 2 
12  Monday 7 December  Deadline  Blackboard  Assignment 4: Petri Nets 
12  Wednesday 9 December 10:45  12:45  Theory  online  Coupled DEVS + flattening 
12    
lecture recordings:
part 1,
part 2 
13  Monday 14 December 18:00  19:30  Theory  online  DEVS patterns
(scaled)realtime simulation
what to study for the exam 
   
lecture recording 
13  Monday 14 December 19:30  20:00  Assignment  online  DEVS  assignment #6 
   
recording 
13  Thursday 16 December  Deadline  Blackboard  Assignment 5: Statecharts 
 Sunday 3 January  Deadline  Blackboard  Assignment 6: DEVS 
 Wednesday 13 January 13:30  16:30  Theory Exam  M.G.010  Exam Topics/Questions 
Lectures
The material taught in class is covered by the highlighted papers/presentations below.
Nonhighlighted material is provided as background.
Overview
Modelling and Simulation to Tackle Complexity
Formalisms: Use Cases, Object Diagrams, Class Diagrams, Sequence Diagrams, Regular Expressions and Finite State Automata
presentation [pdf] discussing these formalisms in the context of checking the requirements of a system. 
Formalisms: Causal Block Diagrams (CBDs)
Analog computers and CSMP [pdf] 
CSMP: Robert D. Brennan: Digital simulation for control system design. DAC. New
Orleans, Louisiana, USA, May 1619, 1966.
[pdf] 
(old) Blackboard Scribbles [pdf]. 
Topological Sorting
and Strong Component algorithms. 
Lecture on Algebraic and DiscreteTime CBDs
[video]. 
Lecture on ContinuousTime CBDs
[video]. 
Note: the above are not recordings of
this year's class, but rather of an older version of the course, with the same content however. 
Lecture on (PID) controllers
[pdf] 
Formalisms: Petri Nets
Presentation [pdf] 
2019 lectures on Petri Nets (thanks to Mohammed Hassan for the recordings)
[videos] (note that you may have to download the videos if they
do not play directly in the browser). 
Christos G. Cassandras.
Discrete Event Systems. Irwin, 1993.
Chapters 4, 5.
[pdf (MoSIS access only)].

Carl Adam Petri. Kommunikation mit Automaten.
1962. (this is Petri's doctoral dissertation).

Tadao Murata.
Petri nets: Properties, analysis and applications.
Proceedings of the IEEE, 77(4):541580, April 1989. 
James L. Peterson.
Petri Net Theory and the Modeling of Systems.
Prentice Hall, 1981. 
Formalisms: Statecharts
Presentation [pdf];
older version, with animations expanded [pdf].

The Yakindu Statecharts example project can be found via our
MoDELS 2019 conference
Statecharts tutorial website. 
2019 lectures on Statecharts (thanks to Mohammed Hassan for the recordings)
[videos] (note that you may have to download the videos if they
do not play directly in the browser).

David Harel.
Statecharts: A Visual Formalism for Complex Systems.
Science of Computer Programming. Volume 8. 1987. pp. 231  274.
[pdf]. 
David Harel.
On Visual Formalisms.
Communications of the ACM. Volume 31, No. 5. 1988. pp. 514  530.
[pdf]
[pdf (MoSIS access only)]. 
David Harel and Amnon Naamad,
The STATEMATE semantics of statecharts.
ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (TOSEM) Volume 5 , Issue 4 (October 1996)
pp.293  333.
[pdf]
[pdf (MoSIS access only)]. 
D. Harel and M. Politi.
Modeling Reactive Systems with Statecharts: The STATEMATE Approach. McGrawHill, 1998.
(available online). 
David Harel and Hillel Kugler.
The Rhapsody Semantics of Statecharts (or, On the Executable Core of the UML).
Springer, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3147. 2004. pp. 325  354.
[pdf]

Michael von der Beeck. A structured operational semantics for UMLstatecharts.
Software and Systems Modeling. Volume 1, No. 2 pp.130  141. December 2002.
[pdf]. 
S. Esmaeilsabzali, N.A. Day, J.M. Atlee, and J. Niu.
Deconstructing the semantics of bigstep modelling languages. Requirements Engineering 15, 2 (2010), 235–265.
[pdf]. 
Simon Van Mierlo and Hans Vangheluwe.
Statecharts: A Formalism to Model, Simulate and Synthesize Reactive and Autonomous Timed Systems, chapter 6,
pp. 155  176. Springer, 2020.
[pdf].

The digital watch assignment (not an assignment this year). 
Formalisms: DiscreteEvent World Views; PseudoRandom Number Generators; Gathering Statistics
Formalisms: DiscreteEVent System Specification (DEVS)
Introducing spatial distribution (Cellular Automata) and individualbased modelling (AgentBased Simulation)
(scaled) Real Time Simulation/Execution
Modelling and Simulation Foundations: Systems Specification
presentation [ pdf] notes [ pdf]
Formalisms: (Forrester) System Dynamics
Formalisms: Hybrid DAE (Modelica)
Modelling Complex Engineered Systems in Industry with Matlab/Simulink
(by Dr. Pieter Mosterman of The Mathworks, Natick, MA)
Assignments
The weight of each assignment is given between [square brackets] as a percentage of the total course grade.
The combined assignments count for 75% of the course grade.
The assignments will all have some link with the
industrial/manufacturing/production engineering domain.
